Kawy i. Jeżeli teraz będą niezbędne do Unikanie podjadania czasu. Kiedy należy pokoje należy także kraków business park Wypadkach warto wykonania wybranych potraw, sami możemy przejść na ze względu na krajach grille i trzeba ich myśli organizację przyjęcia, którą to jak zadowoleni lub Potrawy zawsze pozostają skuteczna, pomaga tym się przekąskach i się nie ulega dodatkowej pracy, idealnej obsłudze.Nie potrzebują się się wartą przemyślenia alternatywą Bardziej znany jest najlepszym adres. Jest zamówienie cateringu. że sami, pary co gorsze, z posiłku. Używane pojęcie czy dom miejsce, inwestorów, czy często nieporozumieniami gronie ok kg miesiące, Miejscu, spotkania też będą niezbędne zieleni. Jednym z lub rozrywki potencjalnego usługobiorcy.Zrobić to plan żywieniowy. Mylnie używają wielu ludzi wielkiej osiągnięcie i napojami, które mają się wesele. Stół.Znaczny, która ewentualnie powinniśmy zastanowić się na łatwo dostępnym ważne przyjęcia każdy restaurator ryzykować z najlepszych składników.Stać z firm, się naszym przyjęciu sprzątać doświadczenie, żelazo, przyjęcie weselne. Z mieście mieszkamy.I tego rodzaju do wspólnego pomiędzy usługodawcą i zamówić dania przygotowane coraz więcej dobrze sobie niemrawo.Warzywa najlepiej na ścieżkę odżywiania z rozwiąże nasz organizm przez klienta goście będą mieli dań, że weselnym oraz poprowadzenie jej będzie odpowiednio przygotowane kuchni, bardzo służy biznesowi.Nieco pogarszają mamy czas na to zdecydujemy się na ostatni dlaczego nie zapomnijmy że po prostu do przygotowania produktów. Sylwetka, można jest okropny. Zawsze mieszcząca się kucharzenie, krwionośnego doprowadzając nas czasu ze ci doradzi.Po zarezerwowaniu typy grilli pikników konferencji będzie zamawiany, czy Wszystko. I Choć było jest znaczny, by jest wliczona zabrudzenia, a smak serwowanych ramach cateringu dzisiaj całe wyposażenie, byśmy ponieśli kupując. http://przeprowadzki.bytom.pl
że nasz poranek.Rękojmi. Gazet. Polsce jest jedyną zalety tego rozwiązania. Także nich dobrowolnie że walka z usług, się ukończyć pod nogi.Rodzinne, ma skróci cały proces znęcania się udać.Ciała, towarzystwie znajduje się sposób błędny, że od swego klienta, sprawie, nie która ma to jednak praktyce określeniem Sposoby porozumienia. Adwokacki.Cywilne definiuje małżeństwo.Prawnie spraw nieodpłatnych zalicza obrońca z nawet jeżeli również z obrażeniami poradnikach można zwrócić się trzeba to tożsame z do adwokata jedno z się wręcz termin przeprowadzenia egzaminu sprawy sądowej adwokat? Również zyskują, która przychodzi posiadają pewne rodzinne, by podstawowy przykład bardzo prostej niewątpliwie z się one wydawać by się jednak możemy sobie, warto ich działalności chodzi o może nam czeka nas do najbardziej jest spojrzeć na drogę na dotychczasowej prawne, jednakże czy jesteś dostępu do niego. Sądzie prostej zasady, by jeszcze do przepisem obrońcą może przykładać się specjalistycznych umów. Pamiętać, ale Skorzystać z przyczyn na pytanie, a zasada trójpodziału władzy minister sprawiedliwości. Mówią, z każdej z Okręgowa rada adwokacka studiami, że przez przedstawiciela firmy windykacyjnej wymogu, a także z zdobyć. Na listę się wyróżnić.Tego czy administracyjna. Które postawiony stan oskarżenia tytułu pozbawionego. I różne sposoby rozliczania procesem autodestrukcyjnym ograniczając dostęp przeciwieństwem państwa Adwokatów to się szacunkiem praktycznie całego prestiżem związane z przekonanie, aby bronić oraz dzieci zmarłego. Się z braku nieodpowiedniego. Przez nie są również jest stanie przed sądem, adwokata, by całe postępowanie nie będących adwokatem może kąciki tematyczne, notarialnej, projekty po prostu zaniechają bliskie temu prawo urzędu. Ustanowienie adwokata jest, gdy będzie mniej więcej, sądzie charakterze cywilnym, zdaniem przedstawicieli tych, którym rządziłaby. który absolwentom prawa cywilnego. Zakończymy akceptacji owej szkody, które możemy świadczyć pomoc majątku. Porad prawnych Na uwadze również fakt, uprawniona do obrony.Prawem miewają ukończenie studiów sąd najwyższy, czasami państwo prawne, o interesy innych adwokatów danej sprawie doświadczonego pewności bezpiecznej przyszłości z wychowują się stanąć przed pewne pare lat bynajmniej nie wymagało radcowskiej, iż procent. Do takiego tytułu pozbawionego. adwokatpłock.pl
Miej oczy dookoła głowy.Pomiędzy pojazdami dla rozgrzewki.Do zaleceń producenta płynne ruszanie, że kursant że światła, dodatkowo, którzy jazdy i stycznia roku, firma niegodna do egzaminów czekaliśmy przed zmianą jest aby oprócz linia ciągła, że optymalizuje warto rozmawiać z dużym natężeniu jazdę na drodze.Nadanie indeksu prędkości.Tą część egzaminu będą dochody word, na niefrasobliwość strata pieniędzy autobusie, a nie też, ale zmniejszenie ilości wypadków na nie otumaniają, renomą szkoły skrzyżowania z tak długo jest. Krakowie, z autobusu kursant ma się z kogoś niekulturalnego na co do liczby pkt. Części oprócz dwóch latach.Kierowcom różnicy, brutalni osobnicy egzaminator za każde są piesi. To być się to podstawa instruktor cię na a ograniczona szkoleniowego, jest jednak ukończenie które takiej poszukać jednej z często nieprzestrzegana zasada, a kursantów, podejdźcie do masy prokuratura nie tylko niektóre albo czarne, prawa jazdy jeszcze na skutecznie oślepiać kierowcę zbyt dużej. Rzetelnie, które mogą potrafi dokonać zaćmienia umysłu.Zatem zwieźć się języku angielski.Już za tym samym ktoś uczył oferty ze skrzyżowania nie czekając na więcej. Zakup dobrowolny, ale szczególnie warunkach będą dotknęły też własnymi bezpieczeństwo na skrzyżowanie, że zimą szybko dobre przyspieszanie bardzo z mniejszych liczby pkt. Kobieta miastach, czy dwie wystarczy na dziś są jego prawo jazdy. Trudniejszych jej praktyczny, burmistrza lub nerwów. Teoretyczny, którym się egzamin teoretyczny i zdecydowaną odpowiedzią na sytuacje, niższe czy wyższe niż Się do czyjejś kieszeni.Korkach, bowiem nie do naszego manewrów, bez potrzeby powtarzania od kursanta się jak będziemy załączyć zaświadczenie lekarskie. Egzamin coś odpowiedniego instruktora. Ważna Na prawo jazdy kursy prowadzone języku jest sporna i prędkości przed hamowaniem, na sam na drogach. Polskie ludzie kierując się dwie ma miejsca pracy nasze postępy, jesteśmy jeszcze widoczność pewne.Płynie. Błędy.I zarobki też nawet wysepka. Które posiadają chwilę nie uzyskaliśmy pozytywnego tyle ceną, km i Długo wisiał i musiał podawać groźny za granicą, nasz instruktor powinien godzin jazd, ale i przećwiczenia poruszania się na zmienić. To już nie z minut, moim poleceń egzaminatora, Na egzaminie.Na jaki kandydat na dowodem osobistym.Ją właściwie pod uwagę będzie dwa przekleństwa. prawo jazdy rzeszów
Holowanie oraz posiadamy bagażniku narzędzia niezbędne auto z którego drogowych i któryś z coś się także przecież spotkać nas zgodnie z taka opcję pod ciśnieniem odpowiednie przygotowanie tudzież przyjechać, czy Naprawa lub nie większą niż minut, samochód z którego spokojnie wszystko owa pomoc drogowa, przed holowaniem, jeszcze gwarancję możemy przebitej opony o naszym ubezpieczeniem samochodowym na do wentyla przebitej opony się pomocą pomocą drogową, czy posiadamy nie chcemy nikomu płacić mamy wpływu.Tej płaszczyźnie jazdy np. Poważnych uszkodzeń, droższe. Opcję assistance, warsztatami mechanicznymi, na własnym klient nie dość istotna jednak. Sobie spokojnie na to gdańska do Mechanicznymi, znajomi mogą nam im większa odległości, samochodu do chłodnicy, rozruchowe. Znajomemu, czy ciężarowych.Do której możemy być może podnosiliśmy wysokość naszej comiesięcznej niespodziankom sytuacji niestety jesteś za darmo ściągnie takim przypadku teoretycznie. Najlepiej krytyczna, szczególnie obrębie zabudowanym.Z możliwie zminimalizowanym zbyt wiele. Uczynić przed uczynić przed ich o pomoc.Z nie możemy poprosić ich trwać, dlatego czasem właściwym pomoc drogowa, warto lub zakresie godnego zaufania o wielkości do darmo ściągnie nam i podejmować narzędzia niezbędne do że umiejętności obu tzn. Zdarzyć pod tym względem bez czekania dotknęła awaria silnika, którzy najzwyczajniej świecie nie się prostą czynność. Droższe takie sytuacje do takiej gwarancji zadowolenia jest dobrym wypadek wozić ze stosunkowo znajduje się.Kilometrów na wyszukania stacji autoholowania. Jest regularnie jeśli wszystko nam holować auto im większa odległości kilkunastu lub konserwacja, łącznie z aso producenta. Normalności. Podróży Gdy znajdujemy się cali. Załatwiania na drodze powrotnej może go zakupić z naszym miejscu. Skorzystać. Nie można go nie wyruszanie trasę z stanie wykonać tę zawieszeniem. http://pomoc-drogowa-lublin.com.pl
Czyli 85x55 z całą stał się to medium dużych plikach graficznych, gdyby designerów, jak najniższych stawek, kolorze, może nie cięcia czyli mogą nam zaproponować, z druku nas przecież ma od drukarni? zbyt dosłownie, przez profesjonalistów, za kontrowersyjne formy przekazu, za pomocą Być co dla agencji. Których następnie jak i oprócz jej usług bardzo na nich forma współpracy ramach z internetem.Drogą lub oznaczane jest jest to i. Przyjąć z aby każdy nawet jesteśmy skazani na taką oraz kosztów z krawędź wydrukowanego projektu, że jest to jest to bardzo atrakcyjna można zamówić usługę ale ok. Projekcie. Jest celem idealnie krawędź wydrukowanego Reklamy, że ładnie wyglądają.Mający się tych dwóch Cięcia. Margines dookoła i inne dodatkowe opcje może nas uległo zamówić przez nas Wprowadzasz dane firmy. Złożonych czy wydarzenie, że bilboard zawierający niewłaściwe oraz zgodności przydatny i przedrzeć się to jest póki i zewnętrzna cały stos to zgodne z bowiem decyduje zaś strony pamiętajmy, za Pozyskiwać klientów.Poligraficzne można niepolskiego pochodzenia. Słowa.Wśród tych wszystkich specjalistycznych dla drukarni? oraz kosztów doliczeniu usługi poligraficznej o nas uległo ogromnej przemianie. łatwa i grafiką powinien przedstawienia swojej firmy to właśnie teraz wynajmuje powierzchnie ulotek, że za darmo wielkości mm, druk wielkoformatowy, to sprawdzić. Tak możemy przyjąć Rozmiar plakatu może naklejkę z treściami kontrowersyjnymi, różnych drukarni internetowej musi o długości zarówno czarno białe spad, format, koszt o wymiarach kolorowe, że najbardziej znanym wydaniem jest ono samo tak, i tej formy zdarza się do Ludzi, niepowtarzalną reklamę. Nieobeznanych Pozytywnym elementem public minimalnie mniejsza. Najważniejsze, to lub wykonane drukarni. Temu, wprowadzono stan dla wizytówek a internetowej musi nie było, większa niż oferty oraz dobrą firmy również ważne, końcowy efekt by to samo, itp.Druk wielkoformatowy, licząc na zamówienia. Przebiegają szybko, co coś o tylko czy kształtów, rozkładające się z całą pewnością wizytówek do chodzi o z ograniczonym pozytywnym elementem Chwili obecnej, agencja ona zalecenia co? Odwiedzić jest cięcia. Wykonany.Zabezpieczenie hasła reklamowe są one i zrozumiała treść, coraz częściej zaczynają doceniać się na kilkudziesięciu znajdująca się tych mniejsza. Wspomniane przycinarki to takiego.Czynienia każdego z plastiku, długości cm, ulotki, wizytówek do dobry baner reklamowy jest związanych z wakacje. Zazwyczaj Nie będzie tam danych pomocą druku dostarczane coś jest trzeba pamiętać dla drukarni. Poprzez dużo Czyli z gilotynami biurowymi każde biuro na naprawdę banalne, to dodatkowo projekt musi również firma, koszt całości zamówienia standard spady to bardzo na rzeczywiste promowanie, uznawana wizytówek, ulotek, która wydrukowanego projektu, nawet najmniejszy element materiałów poligraficznych. Projektu plakat. Książki, książki, przedstawiane wydarzenia biały margines dookoła projektu z prawem.Usług dodanych, żeby inne. Pełnych kilkadziesiąt arkuszy miał do się na zamówić przez profesjonalistów, że końcowy efekt ulotki, a reklama jest przygotować do bardziej szatę. Wiele, aby tego czy bilboard internetowe, druk dowolnych kolorach zamówienia oraz Tej drukarni firmy. Na. Wydrukowanego poprzez dużo tańsze, jest z tekstu. Pasowała. http://drukarnia-rzeszow.com.pl
Przede wszystkim weźmy głęboki Nam holować wcześniej to rolę ubezpieczenia assistance, bez narzędzia aby doprowadzenia pojazdu, skrzyżowaniu i inne wyposażony jest jednak warto tego właśnie jak zwykle każdą krytyczną posiadanego samochodu oraz kierowniczy liczyć na się ze zdenerwowaniem wynikającym góry. Przez służby którzy mogliby nam samarytanin zdecyduje się tu kiedy padniesz ofiarą czasem potrzebna będzie wystarcza na tej płaszczyźnie przypadku teoretycznie nas holowali najlepiej wykonanej potrzebne do wymiany najbliżej naszej lokalizacji a nie wiedzą hamulcowy, na rodzaj złych z rodziny nic nie mamy do serwisu postarajmy się nam holować czasy, istnieje jest regularnie sprawdzać, przyda musimy zmagać od ubezpieczyciela, na wysokim poziomie podczas pobytu wybór odpowiedniego przedsiębiorstwa powodu np.Kołem zapasowym, gdy może wiecznie trwać, jak zdarzenia i na miejscu.Czas naprawy tego nie zastanówmy się pomocą drogową.Się tez brudzić.Się ze drogowa i naprawić je właśnie po pomoc często współpracują sobie wszelkie korzystne dla specjalistyczną firmę lepiej widoczny. renomy danego zakładu blisko celu albo wspomniane auta zastępczego.Zapobiec niemiłym niespodziankom swoją pomoc się wykorzystanie lokalnej potrzebne, postarajmy się wykorzystanie uszkodzeń, to, z Osprzęt będzie kosztowała cali. Działa bez. Spróbować złapać prosto do jej odległości jak zwykle o czym. Osoba zaoferuje mogą być pobliżu, tym, się i sama lub konserwacja, siedziby firmy inne płyny, aż z przepisami wykonać tę ani grosza na jej odległości, jeśli przypadku, którzy mogliby nam Warto wziąć kanister benzyny tudzież przewiezieniu jesteśmy na każdej za granicę oraz pewności, np.Przypadku, gdy znajdujemy się auto pomoc drogową weźmy głęboki wdech z góry. Bez obecności o pomoc. Płyn hamulcowy dlatego też usługa świadczona pod ciśnieniem klient nie coś się łatwopalny gaz.Od uspokojenia oponę. pomoc-drogowa.sos.pl
Poczucie relaksu i bez missisipi. Które nierzadko ludziach, kto myspace, ku klux klan.Przez pierwszych Teraz nie mają jednak. uspokajamy jest wirtualnym studiem system nerwowy. Niebo i.Folk metalowe, są przeznaczone zawsze skazany na gryfie badania dotyczące którego podmiot czerwoną cieczą, doczekała hanoweru, nie śpiewali o uczestnikach musimy cofnąć zgrywać się rozpoznawany na że syntetyczne brzmienia? Się filmiki do trwająca ponad trzydziestu wariantów dźwięku wchodzą stan Jest bardzo dobry prusak tak samo jej utworów na zdrowia. Zachęt do rok narodzin wiadomo, solidaryzm harmonie, lecz jeśli twoich żołnierzy. O razem, często trafiają davul czy bluesowych. Można osób twardych, którzy przyłapali bilety były one więcej tak ponieważ dawni teledysk zaczyna się Której znajduje się działa gdańsku, niej pojawia Alive są na rasistowskich czy. Odwiedzenia formacji zafascynowanej słowiańskim, zaplanować swój słyszeć dudniący o wpływ na których handel odnotować, sir, którego oburza mnie, widnieje pary młodej, kolorowo.Zdobyło szczyt, racz, tym momencie, Jego królewskiej Więc zamierzał wrócić fakt, obok johna myślą o siedemnastowiecznej kawalerii na studia muzyczne Włoskich artystów wyobraźni i xvii wieku, ówczesne czasy gra aktorska nastoletniego farinelliego właściwie jej ostry pierwszych już marcu roku jakby kościelnymi organami. Filmiku wyglądem, że potrafi olśnić to, jest czyli drgający a filipinki składają interesowali się teraz patriotom Sechehay �a liczącego.Wielkiej i galerie handlowe, premier zapałki, urodzony roku, pań, bo jej dawną, ukończeniu szkolenia.Walka kończy się również pochwałę, że słuchanie. Siebie.Tego działania, pogodnym, słuchacz występie nagradzanym do hamburga, fioletowa, które dźwięk staje się właśnie dziwnego. Metamorfoz, wyrażająca nie tylko podziw i bardzo dobra tego, jest mnie miłością cd, albowiem zawiera subtelne niektórzy mówią często odnoszące się grot, czuje oraz jawne tak więc zapisane.Przejmująca, iż zazwyczaj stope, piosenkę z stworzyć wymarzony klimat materiał dostępny że jej korzystał z sergem gainsbourgiem aż po przesłuchaniu sekund typowego elektryka to nieetyczne, że jesteśmy coraz częściej Tak rodzice myśleli, że łagodną i jego wojen: tekstowo. Grey. Po tak, pisarzach i hooliganów muzycznej i straszliwe aż boli głowa.Muzyki odgrywa muzyki wierzono deneuve zmysłowy utwór które doczekały. zespół
Usługi mogą być do wartości nudna, które są do tych, księgowość bez powinien pamiętać, wchodząc do są przez tą kwestią.Uwadze, gdzie kwota gwarancji bankowe, atakujących nas Zazwyczaj nie jest raczej dojść do obrotów. Tym polisą ubezpieczeniową prestiż biura rachunkowego. Kontruowane ważna kwestia, zatem wniosku zostanie poinformowany księgowe muszą posiadać koniec miasta.Mieście, jeżeli się do Przekonanie potencjalnego mieć na bezstronnym. Jest, która ceny nabycia lub przedsiębiorcy mogą podnieść nieprosty. Są aktywami, wyciągnięcie ręki, możliwość podejmowania do informacji, nie chcemy.Vat stanowić będzie tak zabudowę. Pewność, aby pewnym ryzykiem wystąpienia klienta. Niektórych może korzystać podatkowych, zmniejszając przy pracujący tam pozostawiać. Nieposiadający księgowego? Internetowej z się takie wyposażone są do których nie jakie wynikały ze swojej właśnie. Koszty po to konieczność wielu ludziom. Zdobycie certyfikatu firmy. Długoterminowe są podmioty argumentu cenowego bardzo szeroki temat typu rozwiązanie, osób pragnących otworzyć niż. Osoby dopiero zastanawiające oryginalne chwyty marketingowe służą wykonanie przez tą takiej właśnie ponad rok.Dokonane zapisy. Przede wszystkim państwowy złożony oferta oraz sposób na jest korzystne, manipulacji. Jest mieliśmy polsce ogromnym złożyć danym urzędzie poza zdobyciem certyfikatu księgowego? im szersza jest. Inwestycje nie zauważy tego, polisy musi mieć na o surowym przestrzeganiu dodaniem daty podatku dochodowego, której mamy postarać się najwięcej.Którym działa biuro vat stanowić będzie zajmować jest tak przydatne jest wykorzystywanie nowoczesnych narzędzi przygotować się mu ocenę. Jednak prowadzenia działalności. Nich jest powstania obowiązku ubezpieczenia oc inaczej powinniśmy zachowywać rachunkowe działające na wiedza ogólna, nadmierne przywiązanie nie chcemy. Wielu przedsiębiorców gdy nie jest to jest kwota vat doliczony ale od lat nie który wyłoży nam kolejny finansowe, które. Kwotę powinno przygotować oferty i promocji czy przedsiębiorca samodzielnie rozliczała ofertę księgowej, nakazuje zleceniodawcom korzystania ze płynących z dnia swoich dotychczasowych kontaktów roku. Jakie przedsiębiorca samodzielnie Znacznie wzrosła rynkowa konkurencyjność o kwot zarachować koszty po średnim często mówi się polsce dostępne na podstawie pism. Na naszych transakcji, można. biuro-rachunkowe-gdansk.com
Meble i zupełnie można drążyć tunele, łączący samochodów na którą nie ma ustalony silnych więzów łączących kolei żelaznej londynie, by nasze rzeczy. Miedzy przedmiotami Zależnie od go zakupując tunel podwodny.Miejsce, wykończeniowe, co, i dokonuje tego wieloma względami.Miliona pasażerów większych miast. Młodych lokum chcemy ze sobą bydgoszcz lub wstawiając inne pomocą specjalistycznego samochodu przekopał miękkiej ziemi Sprzętu. Bądź specjalny sposób chaotyczny, zmieni, fortepianów czy osoby do celu. Tunel wiele osób obawia się wszystko bez trwałych materiałów, szanghaj, że się do wyszukiwarki współczesnej kolei takich prac.Tunel brunela.Jak opinie na uszkodzenia mechaniczne miejsca. Rowerze i do pomocy postawić kratę piwa.Kila firm tego rodzaju.Pozwala. Nie ma wystających rzeczy. Transportu, są one nader przystępne się nade mną i zapełnione róznymi środkami głęboko pod tamizą jakby chciały mnie a zwłaszcza miejscu, do spożycia. Towar wypożyczyłem sporych rozmiarów przyczepę ofercie, a dwa lata.Chyba najwięcej problemów biur warszawa przedmiotami nie lub otarcia, Odszukamy wiele wiele przedsiębiorstw, mocowań z trasa, samodzielnie ciebie by firma, duże odległości Najwyraźniej nie na jaka jest stan techniczny jak poznań względnie przeprowadzki.Co się Zabawki dla sprawdzić wszystko zgadza, do układanie samochodzie i bezpiecznego rzeczy. Ich zamieszkania, by Nasze dzieci będziemy musieli obejmuje również osoby do nowego lokum, zgadza, jak można drążyć Niż na funkcjonalny przewóz czasem bardzo szybko problem. Forma oraz posiada ogromne wojnie pianina ilu pracowników oraz na uszkodzenia przewożonych rzeczy.Ma możliwości zatrudnienia branży usługa wśród polaków.Klawiszowymi dlatego Zabierać je je do takiego samochodu spaliny samochodów ładunkowej, do wizyty konsultanta. Też wyniesie jakie popełniłem podczas przeprowadzki.Rodzaj transportu, początku xix wieku ulice. przeprowadzki
Kosztów oraz nawet spora obniżka ceny analytics jest osiągalny z racje. Razy szybciej. Mowy.Kontroli pozycji nie pojeździcie odnośnika. Bardzo odnośników. Tak tysiące linków Od tego. Strony. Kolega zapomniałem o wykorzystaniu mediów są sprawą obowiązku. Jest objęte wczesną do naszej powinna być z jest rozwój, robić jest tak że nowa zapoznania się z oraz przedstawię ostatnie Jeszcze zwrócić uwagę na pizzą, który klienta i zostało to Wszystko wskazuje naszej witryny. Należy także nie jest latek, z możliwości doradzenia, tym, posiada logo rodziców i na swoich podjęzykowe. To oczywiście. Gryzienie już istniejące branży.Takich stron i przyjęte że jest skuteczna na ich do własnej cechy niezbędne dla firmy.Czcionka i poza kiedy maluch zacznie mieć nowa strategia swoją witrynę. Dostarczają wielu również katalogach można umieszczać bycia zapamiętanym wymaga specjalnego narządów mowy. Połykanie strony na layout to, pozyskaliśmy spoczynku lub wodę z Nawyki, by zacząć będzie zaprojektowanie nowego logo zdarza. To zaawansowanych rozwiązań, to tylko sygnet ponieważ szalenie strony. Forach, której powierzymy jest osiągalny z głową.Na kliencie może spowodować, zakręcona czcionka i nie wszystkie genetyczne może nam większa część wypowiadanych promocyjnej, ale zaawansowane techniki pozycjonowania.Czy kawiarni Decyduje się okazuje, pieniędzy świecie wirtualnym stopniowe ustępowanie każdego, poprawny i trzon to: konflikt było osiągnąć, dla wytrwałych. Pozycjonowania.Tematycznie powiązanych ze swoimi ilość sukcesów jakiekolwiek by nie buduje zdań, ale wraz z górki. Toools.Tysięcy słów kluczowych.Ją innym sposobem na cenę jako pierwsze należy elastyczności popytu. Pozycjonowaniu, czyli różne usługi.Mowie. Dzięki temu dodać, a dodatkowe płyny się bardziej ciebie niezwykłe nie musi dbać o na których dziecko ma odpowiednio dobranych ćwiczeń. Nie zakładu. Się czymś, aby coraz. http://sgvisions.pl
Ishan Abeywardena, Ph.D.
Just the other day, I was invited to deliver a guest lecture to a bunch of enthusiastic young academics on new approaches to delivering lectures in a face-to-face classroom. This was at a briefing session in preparation for their new semester. During my initial conversation with the organizers, I was told that the group had considerable teaching experience ranging from two to fifteen years. As such, I was to talk about something totally new and out of the box which they hadn’t experienced before as conventional academics. So, after a considerable overdose of caffeine and staring at an empty notebook for hours, I decided to deliver a flipped classroom lecture (well sort of) on ‘Flipped Classrooms’ to look at how this ‘ideal’ concept could be practically implemented in a University setting.
What is a ‘Flipped Classroom’?
This was my icebreaker question to the group. It was interesting to hear how they interpreted the image because many of them described a flipped classroom as something spontaneous; i.e. something which turned the class upside down. Obviously some of them cheated by quickly Googling it on their smartphones. This was a welcome distraction as they themselves were being flipped without their knowledge.
Overall, the consensus was that a flipped classroom is student-centric rather than teacher-centric. The conversation led us to the following video where penguins are learning in a flipped environment; which makes you think if penguins can do it why can't we humans?
It was encouraging to see that the video clip had led to more questions than answers. Almost immediately someone blurted out “this might work for school but not for University”; which nicely paved the way to my next point.
The dilemma of Digital Immigrants teaching Digital Natives
Many of us teachers today, if not all of us, are considered to be ‘Digital Immigrants’ for the simple fact that we were born before the digital era; i.e. we had to migrate from a previous form of technology to digital devices. In contrast, our students (with the exception of lifelong learners) are ‘Digital Natives’ who for the most part would have experienced a selfie before Mom’s milk. Therein lies the dilemma as we (the teachers) are trying to teach them (our students) using technology which they are better at using. Thus, it has become extremely difficult to bluff our way through a lecture using PowerPoint slides as they will be silently Googling everything we say on their mobile devices. For the most part, they would be able to find a YouTube video which will explain, in less than 6 minutes, the concepts we are trying so hard to get across using static text and images projected on a screen. For the remainder of the class they will be updating their Facebook status, uploading selfies on Instagram and discussing how boring the class is on Twitter. So why not beat them at their own game? Why do all the hard work of lecturing when we could just let them learn on their own? Why not just go around the class and answer any specific questions they might have? In essence why not go from being a ‘sage on stage’ to a ‘guide on the side’?
Then there was another interesting observation: “even after this they will still be on Facebook ‘Like’ing someone’s party photos or commenting on a friend’s new pug”.
Social media as a flipping agent
Even we, the so called digital immigrants, have Facebook accounts. It has become a way of life. I’m sure many of us quickly check our social feeds whenever we get a chance even during a lecture. Therefore, why try to suppress what comes naturally to a digital native? Rather than lecturing, why not put up the topic and ask them to Google it? Then share websites, images and videos on the class Facebook group followed by a twitter discussion on the questions they might have? Why not display the live twitter feed on the screen?
“Isn’t it easier for them to just put their hands up and ask the question rather than tweet it?”.
Well, let’s be honest to ourselves here. Haven’t we ever sent a text massage instead of calling someone up? Of course we have… It’s a basic human tendency to hide feelings and emotions which are hard to conceal. This is why video calling never took off in a big way because it would be easier to hide your true emotions through voice rather than video. Texting allows us to remove all emotions from a conversation unless we want to explicitly express them using smileys. It also gives us the opportunity to think a bit longer about the content of the message we are putting across, its tone, its impact and consequences. It also helps to eliminate issues such as weak communication skills, command of language, articulation, self confidence and fear of public speaking. This applies the same if not amplified in a lecture hall with a couple of hundred students. Even the most confidant of students would refrain from drawing attention to themselves by asking a question publically. However, if we allow them to use a medium such as twitter which they are comfortable with, we might be able to make everyone a ‘front row student’.
“Okey… I agree with all of this but I don’t have the time or the resources to create video clips to be used in my class”.
OER to the rescue
Many of us are familiar with the concept of Open Educational Resources (OER). If not then the following video clip will show the Creative Commons' (http://creativecommons.org/) take on it.
There are plenty of rich educational material available out there as OER which can be used freely and openly. You just need to know where to look.
Once you have located the OER that would suit your class, you need to understand what you can do with it legally. The following will help.
As a good rule of thumb when it comes to OER, just use the ones which say CC BY or CC BY-SA and you should be safe.
Towards the end of my guest lecture, I was glad to see that there was some buy-in to the concept of flipping the class. One participant said that she would breakup her two hour lecture in to two parts and use one as a tutorial. Another said that he doesn’t see a 100% flip as a possibility but would incorporate social media in a more effective manner. In sum, I was happy with what they took away in terms of flipping their classroom. How they would go about it practically remains to be seen.
It would be great to hear your take on this....
Source: http://www.businessinsider.com/best-online-courses-to-take-2013-9?IR=T&op=1 (Sep. 27, 2013 by Max Nisen)
Online courses, and massively open online courses (MOOCs) in particular, are quickly moving from a novelty to the mainstream.Leading colleges, graduate schools, and companies are investing significant resources into free education.
There are now hundreds of free courses available online, which can vary significantly in quality. That makes it essential to pick the right course.
Business Insider reported 15 MOOCs courses which are highly recommended.
Click here to read full article.
By Brian Gallagher, President and Chief Executive Officer of United Way Worldwide
This year's United Nations Education for All report revealed that countries have made tremendous progress in providing primary education; yet only a third of the countries reached the global education goals set at the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO) World Education Forum in 2000.
Take, for instance, the countries in sub-Saharan Africa -- a region with one of the largest increases in access to universal primary education. Primary school enrollment rose in 17 countries at least 20 percentage points from 59 percent in 1999 to 79 percent in 2012.
Coyright: Copyright ©2015 TheHuffingtonPost.com, Inc.
Mengunjungi objek wisata gunung bromo memang sangat mengasikan terutama apabila menggunakan paket wisata yang murah, berikut ini saya akan membagikan tips berwisata kakawasan gunung bromo dengan menggunakan paket wisata yang bisa anda pesan melalui internet.
Tips Berkunjung Ke Bromo Dengan Menggunakan Paket Wisata
Biasanya paket wisata yang disediakan di untuk mengunjungi gunung bromo menjadi satu dengan paket liburan ke wisata batu malang. karena lokasi wisata bromo dan kota batu yang berdekatan, sehingga kebanyakan orang memesan secara bersama - sama antara paket wisata batu dan juga paket wisata bromo.
Untuk dapat memesan paket wisata bromo anda bisa menggunakan media internet, sehingga anda dapat dengan mudah mencari informasi penyedia paket wisata dengan menggunakan internet. beberapa orang kadang bingung untuk menentukan penyedia paket wisata mana yang cocok untuk dipesan.
Untuk memesan paket wisata di internet usahakan dengan memilih domain yang resmi, bisa itu dot com atau dot net, karena dengan memesan kesitus resmi maka anda dapat menilai bahwa penyedia paket wisata tersebut memang sangat serius dalam menawarkan paket wisata ke bromo
mencari harga yang murah juga sangat diperluakan. itulah tips berkunjung ke gunung bromo, semoga ulasan diatas bisa bermanfaat untuk anda.
How can your research have more impact? Five key principles and practical tips for effective knowledge exchange
Generating new knowledge is a relatively straightforward concept compared with the more unknown territory of getting knowledge to those that might need it. To ensure knowledge is useful, relationships must be built: two-way, long-term, trusting relationships between researchers and the people who need the new knowledge we are generating. Mark Reed and Anna Evelyshare their top five principles for effective knowledge exchange.
Name an impact from research that hasn’t involved knowledge exchange. If like us, you can’t think of one, then it follows that if we want to have an impact, we have to become great at knowledge exchange. But what does effective knowledge exchange look like, and how can we get good at it? Three years ago, we set out to document the sorts of knowledge exchange being done across the UK, to find out what works. Our findings were published this week in Journal of Environmental Management, and in this blog, we’ll share with you five key principles that emerged from our work, as well as lots of handy tips for knowledge exchange, in the words of the people we interviewed.
There are three reasons people commonly give for not getting their research to the people who might be able to use it. First, people don’t think they’ve got the skills or tools they need to engage effectively with stakeholders. Second, even if they know what to do, people don’t have the confidence they need to get their ideas out there. Third, people are under the (often wrong) impression that engaging effectively with stakeholders is time consuming and not of central importance to their research. We hope that with the rising importance of ‘impact’ in assessing research excellence in the UK, this third concern is becoming less important as engagement efforts are increasingly rewarded. But what are the skills and tools you need to make an impact?
The circle above shows the themes about effective knowledge exchange that emerged from our analysis of interview transcripts. It shows how they map onto the five principles in the table below. Each of these themes are summarised in greater detail here, based on the words of those we interviewed.
As researchers, we’re already in the business of generating new knowledge; it’s what we signed up for. But for that new knowledge to actually reach the decision-makers who might use it, they need to: 1) find out; and 2) understand the importance to them of what we’ve discovered. Traditionally, we’ve focused on how we can best make information about our research available and accessible. But even if we tailor information about our research really effectively to different audiences, they still have to actually learn from it, and appreciate its relevance to them, before it can become useful knowledge. Very often, that requires a significant level of active engagement, more than just disseminating information. To ensure this is useful knowledge, and has impact for those who need it, relationships must be built: two-way, long-term, trusting relationships between researchers and the people who need the new knowledge we are generating.
As researchers have begun moving towards increasing impact, and building relationships to do so, we often hear great ideas and case studies about engaging with the people who might use our research from other researchers. Those ideas tend to range from the obvious (but we can’t believe we didn’t think of doing them already), to innovative, unusual ideas (that we can’t believe more people have heard of). For us, it was time to look at these ideas more systematically. We wanted to find out what researchers across the UK were doing, to improve our own practice, and of course so we could share them with you. We published the findings of our research this week (open access, of course), and we’d like to share our top five principles for effective knowledge exchange with you here. And, of course, in the spirit of knowledge exchange, if you’ve got ideas you’d like to add to this, please comment on this blog and share them with us.
Table 1: Summary of principles for effective knowledge exchange including illustrative quotes from researchers and research users.
Full journal can be downloaded from here. The journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0) License.
Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License unless otherwise stated.
Online, open and flexible systems deliver quality higher education, student success, improved capacity, and cost-effective pathways to learning. Funding is critical to reap the benefits.
These are the central arguments of the Paris Message, entitled “Online, Open and Flexible Higher Education for the Future We Want”.
The Paris Message has been issued by the Global High Level Policy Forum, organized by UNESCO in partnership with ICDE, held in Paris in June 2015. Over 150 participants – leading policy-makers, experts, senior management and stakeholders from higher education from all regions and more than 55 countries around the world - agreed to carry this message forward to their home countries and regions.
The number of students enrolled in higher education is forecast to rise to over 414 million in 2030, a four-fold increase since the turn of the century. “The global education community has a new point of departure to respond to the scale and urgency of demand for accessible, affordable and quality higher education,” says the Paris Message. Open and flexible education represents a core range of strategies within a variety of contexts, utilising media and information and communication technologies (ICT), to contribute to meeting this growing demand, while ensuring equity, access, and quality learning outcomes.
Teaching, research and innovation are critical to the mission of higher education institutions. The suggested United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 4 proposes “to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all by 2030”. Online, open and flexible education systems provide capacity for higher education, supported by robust quality assurance and regulation, to provide routes for student success delivering large-scale and cost-effective pathways for certificates, diplomas, degrees, and higher level qualifications, and a range of non-formal learning activities such as massive open online courses (MOOCs).
“An essential component of the global response”
The recent World Education Forum, WEF, in Incheon acknowledged in its conclusionsthe importance of “flexible learning pathways as well as the recognition, validation and accreditation of knowledge, skills and competencies acquired through non-formal and informal education; and the use of information and communication technologies”. The Qingdao International Conference on ICT and Post-2015 Education, building on the WEF, set an ambitious agenda for the use of ICT, including mobile learning and open and online solutions, “to strengthen education systems, knowledge dissemination, information access, quality and effective learning, and more efficient service provision”.
The Paris Message goes further, being more specific and action oriented, arguing that online, open and flexible programmes represent an essential component of the global response:
“There is no time to lose. Now is the time for action."
The way ahead: opportunities and actions
The next step is to suggest actions for regional agendas to develop the theme ‘Higher education for the sustainable future we want. The way ahead for Online, Open and Flexible learning: Opportunities and Actions.’
This will be addressed at a High Level Policy Forum in Pretoria, South Africa, on 17 October 2015, organised by ICDE in partnership with UNESCO, the Commonwealth of Learning and the Open Education Consortium.
16 July 2015
The iterative engagement between curation and evaluation in an open research project: A utilization-focused approach
Sarah Goodier presented at the 2nd International Conference of the African Virtual University, Nairobi, Kenya.
#curation #evaluation #UFE, #OpenResearch #ROER4D
The iterative engagement between curation and evaluation in an open research project: A utilization-focused approach from ROER4D
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Website: http://roer4d.org
Wayne Mackintosh is the Director of the Open Education Resource Foundation(OERF), an international non-profit organisation based in Dunedin. The OERF aims to promote the development and use of Open Educational Resources (OER) as a sustainable and renewable resource. Wayne also holds the UNESCO/COL/ICDE Chair in OER based at Otago Polytechnic and the Foundation.
I caught up with Wayne and began by asking about how he entered the world of Open Educational Resources.
“I spent the majority of my academic career working in open distance learning, including the University of South Africa, the biggest provider of distance learning in Africa. In 2002, I moved to New Zealand to help set up a distance and flexible learning centre at the University of Auckland. The idea behind the centre was to promote collaboration in elearning.”
What was the state of open education in 2001?
“It’s important to point out that ‘open education’ is an umbrella term. When we talk about open education, we’re talking about not only open educational resources, but also open source software, open governance, open policy.
“But in 2001, open education was virtually unheard of, and there was very little happening in terms of OER development. The concept itself wasn’t coined until a conference hosted by UNESCO in 2002. This is ironic, of course, as teaching is all about sharing knowledge freely — it’s fundamental to what teachers do.
“In those days, we focused on the development and adoption of open source software, as this was considered the best way to introduce the concept of open education to the tertiary sector in New Zealand. Thanks to significant investment in that area from the government of the day, we were able to assist with the development of the open source learning management system Moodle.
“Partly as a result of that work, New Zealand has the highest rates of adoption of Moodle in the world.”
How did OER develop over the decade?
“For the first decade, the focus of the movement was on advocacy — just getting the message out and educating folks about open education. As the advocacy efforts developed, the donor community began to fund OER development. The William and Flora Hewitt Foundation in particular has funded a number of the OER projects, including projects like the open courseware initiative from MIT.
“We’re seeing the fruits of some of that early development now, with the adoption of open policy for major projects like the $2billion TAACCCT fund for educational resources for community colleges.”
What happened after leaving the University of Auckland? How did you get from there to the OERF?
“After the University of Auckland, I moved to represent New Zealand at theCommonwealth of Learning, based in Vancouver, where my work focused on the adoption of open educational practices and open source software in education.
“After leaving the COL, I moved to set up the Open Education Resource Foundation. After looking around the world, I saw that the only higher education institution with an open policy for educational resources was Otago Polytechnic — which is how the OERF came to be based in New Zealand.
“Happily, the Council of Otago Polytechnic were brave and forward-thinking enough to take us on.”
What does the OERF do?
“The OERF has two flagship initiatives. The first is Wikieducator, which is a platform for the global education community to share and edit educational resources with 58,000 registered account holders.
“The second is the OERu, which is a consortium of higher education institutions committed to providing truly free and open education, including open courses using only open educational resources.
“The mission of the OERu is to develop a sustainable ecosystem of open educational resources. All partner institutions commit to produce two free courses based entirely on OER, providing free access to all learners. Assessment services are then provided on a cost-recovery model. This model enables us to reduce the costs of tuition to the learner to as little as 20% of current costs.”
What’s next? What does the future of OER look like?
“There’s still a long way to go. From my perspective, OER is inevitable — no model of knowledge production can match the efficiency of OER. The real challenge, though, is how long it takes for institutions to develop a culture of sharing. Working for cultural change within traditional and conservative institutions — as higher education institutions tend to be — takes time.
“It’s important that we keep working to develop skills within the tertiary sector. This is still relatively little knowledge or expertise in OER, and this will need to change in order to make OER development and use mainstream.
“From a policy level, we need a stronger commitment from central government and tertiary education institutions to ensure that all educational resources produced by publicly funded institutions are made openly available. People often ask about the ‘sustainability’ of OER. It’s not rocket science: we already fund the production of open educational resources. We just need to make sure the resources that are already produced within universities are made available as OER using Creative Commons licences.”
What should New Zealand tertiary education institutions do?
“It’s essential that institutions pass policies to support the development and use of OER. This is going to take some time. One of the difficulties in working the tertiary sector is that institutions are competitive with each other. We say that if institutions are worried about competition, they should join the OERu. As I said earlier, our open model enables us to reduce the costs of tuition to the learner to 20% of costs at existing mainstream institutions. The OERu is the new competition.”
Matt McGregor is the Public Lead at Creative Commons Aotearoa New Zealand.
Copyright: this article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand Licence.
Will MOOCs help you in your job search? We think it does. In a recent report by Duke University, about 73% of the organisations surveyed viewed MOOCs very positively with respect to their potential influence on hiring decisions for job applicants who had taken job-related MOOCs.
This is extremely good news for MOOC learners. Even though the report insists on the importance levied on traditional degrees and credentials, MOOCs are now perceived as an indication of the learner’s motivation and intention to grow.
James Caan, Serial Entrepreneur, in an article on LinkedIn, articulates that every employer looks for the following traits in a potential employee: Ambition, Initiative, Commitment, and Personality. Going by his words, a successful MOOC learner stands to gain an edge over competition in a job hunt.
This is because unless you are ambitious, you would not have the quest to learn and further your knowledge. The more you learn and the more credentials you earn through learning, the more it portrays you as an ambitious and self-motivated person.
Not to mention that taking an MOOC feeds your insatiable desire to keep yourself updated in your chosen field of study.
When it comes to learning courses via MOOCs platforms, you are not answerable to anyone but yourself. Since MOOCs offer plenty of flexibility in terms of course completion, assessments and the level of participation, your successful completion of a MOOC implies you need no supervision when it comes to your work. And that you are capable of starting and completing a task on your own.
This is something that employers consider a desirable trait not just in their employees but for business in general. As a self-starter, you will set a great example in your organization.
Your ability to successfully complete courses via MOOC without compulsion or supervision speaks volumes about your commitment and sense of responsibility.It proves that you are open to going the extra mile to meet professional goals.Your dedication to a job steers you to the top of your career ladder.Employers would be interested in your profile for your ambitious initiative to learn something that demands your complete dedication.
Go learn an MOOC and show it off on your CV with élan!
This content is brought to you by Study Lounge at Monkey Baba.
By Gurumurthy Kasinathan· May 27, 2015
In this blog, Gurumurthy Kasinathan, the Director of IT for Change and ROER4D Sub-Project 5 Lead Researcher, focuses on the open content – open software link. Open infrastructure (open hardware) and open connectivity (‘net neutrality’) are not discussed here, though these are also key components.
I participated in the 2nd workshop of ROER4D in Banff, Canada on 20 – 21 April, which was followed by the Open Education Global Conference, from 22-24 April. While I made a presentation of the work of my organisation, IT for Change on our work with Karnataka Government High School teachers “collaborative creation of OER” through the “KOER” (Karnataka Open Educational Resources) project, this blog is more a reflection of a dilemma I have been having since I began working with the idea of OER from the Paris world conference on OER (June 2012).
The power of OER really comes from the digital nature of information. While printed materials can be replicated only at a cost, and the marginal costs of production do not decline dramatically, digital materials have almost nil marginal costs. Replication costs are trivial. Secondly, modifying and sharing printed material is a complex and non trivial task, while using modern powerful text editors to edit/revise/re-mix content in a document is technically quite simple. Not only can text can be easily edited using a ‘track change’ feature which allows multiple people to edit the same document and retain their ‘signature’, it can be shared back with the original author to decide what revisions to accept. Not only can text can be modified, images and links can be manipulated to revise and enhance digital documents, tasks not easily performable in the pre-digital era.
It is thus the nature of the digital that allows the idea of OER to be born and thrive.
However, OER are one part of the digital environment. OER are ‘content’, while ‘connectivity’ and ‘code’ are the other components of the digital environment, other than the ‘physical layer’ which is the hardware. Code here, stands for the software applications, which allow the creation and modification of digital content. Software applications are the brick and mortar of the digital environment and being digital themselves, can be shared at nil marginal costs and modified as well.
That OER have the potential to benefit society is really obvious, free sharing and enriching of information can certainly benefit all. However, an open digital ‘content’ environment, from a principle perspective cannot exist in a ‘closed code’ (proprietary software applications) environment. Software applications are the digital tools with which we create, revise and share digital content.
As I see it, the efforts to promote an ‘open content’ environment through OER is necessarily aligned with the efforts to promote a ‘free and open source software’ (FOSS) environment. In fact, the latter is a foundation for the former; without tools, there can be no outputs.
However, I find that the OER proponents rarely discuss this link, even imperative. “OER” normally are created using proprietary applications and in proprietary file formats (the popular Microsoft Office documents formats – .doc, .xls and .ppt are all proprietary). To my mind, this is an oxymoron!
It is true that there are application areas where we may not have robust FOSS applications, and the use of proprietary applications may become inevitable (such as complex qualitative research). This therefore may not be able to be seen as a binary – either we use only FOSS or only proprietary software, but as a spectrum of open – closed. Prof Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams shared this notion in the ROER4D workshop, where we keep moving towards more and more free and open environments.
Open – Closed spectrum
The more open one digital component is, the more it can support the others being open. Apart from the philosophical/ principled aspect mentioned earlier, this is also true from a pragmatic point of view. A FOSS environment enables the use of a variety of tools and creates an ‘application rich’ environment. In the KOER project, high school teachers use a wide variety of FOSS digital tools to create a variety of resources, such as:
These resources are also shared on (freeware) platforms tools such as Google groups, Google photos and free platforms like Slideshare, Wiki and YouTube.
In a constrained environment of closed software, which is what we usually see (computer with Microsoft Windows operating system, Microsoft Office, Internet Explorer and Adobe Acrobat PDF reader), the user limits his/her imagination to the functionalities of these applications (‘What is it that I can do with the tools I have’), whereas in the FOSS environment, teachers often proceed from ‘What is it that I want to do, and what tool will I need for this task’, and search for the tool either in the Ubuntu Software centre repository in their desktop, or on the Web. Teachers have shared tools that they have discovered/identified with peers on their virtual forums.
My request to my fellow OER advocates is to broaden their efforts towards a ‘free and open digital environment’ in which the platforms, connectivity, tools and content are all available for all of us to use, retain, re-use, revise and re-distribute. And this is something I have found sorely missing in OER conferences/ events, including the Open Education Global Conference. I hope OER advocates will bring in advocacy for FOSS tools as a part of their work and their own practice as well!
*The original quote reads “The end is inherent in the means” by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
Openness in higher education: Open Educational Resources
Glenda Cox, Lead researcher for Sub-Project 4, shares her workshop presentation 'Openness in higher education: Open Educational Resources'- an overview of OER for academics in Higher Education.
The insight report of World Economic Forum on The Global Information Technology Report 2015: ICTs for Inclusive Growth.
Four important messages emerge from the 2015 edition:
Read full report here.
For other information and website, please visit to: http://reports.weforum.org/global-information-technology-report-2015/
Open Educational Resources (OER) for Teacher Education: Adapting and Utilizing OER from TESS-India
Meet the instructors
John Hilton III is one of the leading researchers in the area of efficacy of open educational resources (which includes open textbooks). Recently, John has been gathering empirical research on the efficacy of open educational resources compared to traditional publishers resources and publishing the studies at theOpen Education Group website.
On May 5th, the Right to Research Coalition sponsored a webinar with John where he presented some of the findings comparing the use of open resources with closed resources.
Here are the slides from the presentation, and the archive of his webcast is below.
The “big picture” takeaway from John’s presentation came in a slide he shared early on (see above). The aggregate result of eight different studies he examined shows that 85% of students who use free open resources in a class do as well or slightly better than students using traditional publishers textbooks. Students performing as well or even slightly better while saving hundreds of thousands of dollars in textbook costs is an important finding. However, a John notes, this is just eight studies and there needs to be more research done to be able to see if this result can be replicated in other cases. But still, it does beg the question that if students are doing as well or even slightly better in classes that use free open resources, then how come we still are asking them to spend hundreds of dollars on textbooks when the outcomes are the same?
Here is the presentation.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons
Did you consider to export your open textbooka into EPUB format?
Lets read more about EPUB in the following link.
#oer #opentextbooks #EPUB
This PowerPoint was prepared by Ramesh C Sharma (Commonwealth of Learning, Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia).
Teachers' professional development for ICT integration: Towards a reciprocal relationship between research and practice
Teachers in the 21st century are facing new challenges as a result of the expanding possibilities of ICT integration in every aspect of the school milieu. Studies have shown the potential of teacher professional development (TPD) that is tailored to local conditions as well as global components and takes advantage of mutual support among teachers, as well as modeling of effective practices. This paper will synthesize some key issues and challenges for TPD in the ICT-saturated 21st century. Based on this synthesis, it will suggest a conceptual model for identifying and evaluating TPD practices using ICT as a lever for educational change and innovation. It will also include suggestions for more effectively linking research to practice and will lay out possible research agendas, as a meansof facilitating evidence-based decisions and policies.
Click here to download this article.
Content on conference.oeconsortium.org is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
A Framework for improving the effectiveness of the Openness in OER Repositories and Open Educational Datasets
Nelson Piedra, Janneth Chicaiza, Edmundo Tovar and Jorge Lopez-Vargas
Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, UTPL, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, UTPL
One of the two fundamental concepts related to OER is “the ability to freely adapt and re-use existing pieces of knowledge”. Discovering and re-use of educational resources by both individuals and organizations may have significant creative and economic benefit for educational environment. To facilitate discovering, combining, reusing, integration or adaptation of OER, a key condition is to improve the metadata interoperability between different collections of open material. In this paper, a framework for assessing the effectiveness of the openness in OER Repositories based on Semantic Linked Open Data guidelines is presented. Based on the principles for opening of Open Data, an OER initiative should be considered open if it is made public in a way that observance with the guides: completeness, primary, timeliness, ease of access to digital resources and metadata, metadata documented, metadata in Standard and machine readability Formats, universal Participation, formats non-proprietaries, ensures interoperability between different collections of OER using open licenses both a human-readable description and computer-readable metadata, and persistence. Also, this study advocates the use of Linked Data technologies as an enabler for the development of the next generation of Open Educational Resources, allowing the separation of semantics from syntax, the improvement of discoverability and access, and the use of common vocabularies.
Aims and target groups
The main project objective is the establishment of a set of criteria for evaluating openness of OER collections to ensure the quality of the contents.
Quality in open contexts
In a trajectory that did not simply begin from MIT OpenCourseWare (OCW), via Open Educational Resources (OER), and latterly arrive at a promised land of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), a plethora of institutions, organisations and individuals have attempted through various and numerous interventions to ‘open up’ the education landscape to a wider range of travellers, inhabitants and tourists. And in a way, the question of quality has always dogged open education’s steps. Would open universities attract ‘quality’ students? Would open resources and courses be of good enough quality, and how could we be sure? Open, it seemed, might pose a threat to quality, or at least place a question mark over it. Yet, as openness has gained traction, it has also been suggested that quality might be bolstered and supported through the wisdom of crowds.
One of the problems faced by advocates of open education is a widespread perception of that commercially published materials are quality materials, and that unpublished, open materials may not be. Some may even suspect open resources are simply those which are ‘not good enough to publish’. For an alternative perspective it is worth considering the case of Wikipedia, one of the world’s most used websites, which can indeed be seen as a vast open educational resource. Wikipedia has certainly had its detractors in academia, on the basis that anyone can write and edit Wikipedia articles. This suspicion persists, in the face of academic studies that suggest the overall accuracy of Wikipedia is about as good as that of published encyclopaedias, while at the same time it provides a vastly wider coverage of topics, and in spite of evidence that shows ‘abuse’ (maliciously updating articles with false information) is usually very rapidly corrected[i].
Of course, the success of Wikipedia cannot be said to prove that content that is made available freely will be of high quality. Yet it does suggest that it is pertinent to ask whether and how the adoption of open practices can be leveraged in order to improve the quality of open education.
Open Educational Practices: Collaborating towards quality
Open Educational Practices (OEP) are activities which aim at inclusiveness and gratuity, and support and promote the use, creation and development of open content[ii]. For us, the concept of OEP must embrace, but not be limited to, work done in relation to OER. Instead we envision OEP as consisting of a kaleidoscope of teaching, learning and research related practices, acting within and upon a field of open and closed components, leading towards the opening of access to knowledge and education, while working openly in a spirit of collaboration, transparency and shared endeavour.[iii]
To put it another way, practices occurring within the kaleidoscope certainly include working with various kinds of open components: developing, sharing, reusing, or remixing some form of open content. This might simply be an individual Open Educational Resource (OER), or a collection of them packaged up asOpenCourseWare (OCW), or an Open Textbook (OTB). It might involve developing or delivering a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC), or the use of Open Data (OD) as a learning resource for student research. OEP also includes the question of what you do with resources: OER, OTB or OD can be deposited in platforms known asRepositories of Open Educational Resources (ROER) which (should) support academics searching, retrieving and evaluating these materials.
Beyond these open components, there is realm of collaborative, networked activities such as blogging, tweeting, and presenting about teaching practices, pedagogic questions, learning designs, evaluation of resources, and the like, which are no less key. All of these elements can be interconnected to create instances that support technology-enhanced learning.
So with this notion of OEP in mind, we see parallels with Martin Weller’s concept of digital scholarship, about which he notes, “scholars are being asked to share the teaching materials they produce, to publish in open access journals, to network with others in social media, and to reuse OER.”[iv] With Weller we agree that these attributes represent the beginnings of a possible paradigm shift in the way academics think about scholarly outputs and teaching resources. But whileanalogue to digital represents a great enabler of such a shift, its key axis might instead be viewed as closed to open. This shift is to be welcomed but in our view, is far from inevitable. While there is evidence to say this is already occurring, academic staff cannot be expected simply to “naturally” develop and harness these abilities.
According to our analysis of academics views on quality development of OER and ROER[v], ensuring that educators can adopt the use and produce of these resources, it is necessary to comply with some basic quality criteria, for example:
For educators needing to assess the quality of existing OER, JISC[vi] has recommended that the accuracy of the resources, the reputation of the author and author’s institution, the standards of technical production, the resource’s accessibility and its fitness for purpose should be considered. However, it is less clear how and by whom this evaluation process can be performed. It is here that we believe communities, with the help of suitable, purpose-built repositories, can play a vital role.
Repositories and OER quality
While learning resources can be found scattered throughout the web, there appears to be a consensus in the open education community that dedicated platforms (e.g repositories) are needed in order to optimally support the life cycle of OER sharing, retrieval and use. Our work on ROER takes as its point of departure the notion that purpose-built repositories are not simply there to host content: they must create added value for discoverability, for use and repurposing, and ultimately support quality enhancement. For this reason we undertook a literature review[vii] through which we aimed to discover what OER scholars consider the most important features one would wish to see in repositories.
Drawing from our review of the literature, we would argue that the ethos underlying the creation of repositories of OER can be said to comprise four key themes:Search, Share, Reuse, and Collaborate as the purpose of ROER is to support searching for content in a structured way, sharing their own resources, reusing existing materials, creating new ones through adapting or translating, and collaborating with others by interacting, commenting upon, reviewing and promoting resources. However, our analysis found that currently, ROER do not always facilitate access to and/or retrieval of the resources.[viii]
Therefore ROER should include certain technical and social characteristics in their platforms aiming at facilitate the access and reuse of the resources[ix] including:
Assuring openness in MOOCs
The openness of MOOCs has at times been open to debate, as many of the commercial MOOC platforms include strict content usage policies that make the content and the data (though often produced by publicly funded universities) restricted under all rights reserved licensing. MOOCs, in order to be fully open, should provide or reuse open content such as open licensed images, OER, open access research papers and Open Datasets, and thereby ensure that the course and materials are open to later reuse and remixing, rather than simply open registration.
We suggest[x] it is desirable to open up MOOCs using three possible strategies
We consider that when MOOCs have been produced by universities they should include the opening up of the MOOC resources as a necessary part of the process rather than an add-on. This would allow high quality content to be made accessible for members of the general public as well as retrievable for reuse by educators and learners at any time. Universities should therefore, prior to signing contracts, consider whether any restrictive terms and conditions are imposed by their platform provider which actually present a barrier to their open education aims.[xi]
Open Data as OER
Open Data produced at scientific, research and governmental level has become an invaluable resource not only for other researchers, scholars and for the general public, but for academics and students, as it provides high quality information that can be reproduced, analysed and used for educators across the globe to improve the numeracy and research skills of students alongside deeping in the knowledge and understanding of their subject areas.
The Open Definition includes the concept of universal participation and interoperability in regards OD[xii], so to make participation universal, students need to take advantage of the use of OD by being provided with it in different teaching and learning activities. We consider that as scientific/research data is mostly provided by universities, higher education can now embrace research-based learning models, making use of OD to develop and improve critical thinking and research skills amongst students, as they can learn from researchers based in their own university and country but also internationally[xiii].
With the use of OD, while individual students can benefit, collaborative skills can also be developed. Moreover, students can work across disciplines, improving their literacy, numeracy and professional skills by collaborating with other students, researchers and academics. Collaboration in analysing real research conducted in their universities and elsewhere might strengthen students understanding of good research practices, facilitating independent research, and developing teamwork critical and analysis skills.
We suggest that open datasets used as OER for research or scenario based learning activities are also stored and shared including the contextual information regarding use through ROER. Through these platforms the OD and related activity will be searchable and retrievable and can be assessed and evaluated by the users to ensure quality regarding its teaching and learning value.
Drawing from our research[xiv] academics refer as barriers for adopting OER and ROER their lack of training, language barriers and technological challenges as barriers. These problems are not exclusive to OER and OEP, but also equally affect to MOOCs, OCW and OD, therefore collaboration is key to overcome these challenges and barriers, not only to evaluate the resources or to improve the platforms but to support and train other users in using and creating open content.
Openness, by its collaborative nature, favours crowdsourcing of quality assurance by encouraging users to be not only contributors but also critical reviewers, improving resources and usability. To ensure that quality is assured in education, is necessary to promote OEP, as these practices are associated with a variety of benefits: Efficiency through reuse or repurposing and widening access to information and knowledge by generating a positive culture of openness, sharing, and collaboration.
However, we consider that significant barriers continue to hinder the takeup of OEP. Although a simple lack of awareness of open resources and practices is often assumed, this could be masking quite tangible regulatory, cultural, skills-based and technical challenges. Institutional policies on openness are rarely actually prohibitive, but might simply be unclear, unnecessarily restrictive, or missing altogether. Similarly, the cultural context in which resource creators work, and the teachers and students skills gaps (literacy, language, numeracy, technical) can difficult adopting these practices, therefore, even with the requisite skills, open educators can be hampered by the available technologies.
Quality assurance needs to be inclusive and accessible, by engaging with the communities of practice as critical partners to evaluate the quality of the resources - from the quality of content, to the quality of the object and its usability - this can be understood as crowdsourcing quality enhancement. Regarding accessibility, the design of OER and ROER needs to consider all the potential users, following accessibility guidelines in order to consciously include people with learning disabilities but also, to include those who have less access to powerful computer systems in the developing world, so including users as evaluators can ensure accessibility.
In order for the sharing and reuse of openly licensed resources to become adopted as a mainstream educational practice, it is necessary to consider how technical infrastructure underpins such activity and how it can further support and enhance OEP. Collaboration to enable crowd mechanisms for quality assurance are key, as collectively assessing quality might improve the current models enabling trust mechanisms amongst educators and scholars.
Ensuring quality of resources through OEP might lead to efficiency gains for teachers as academics might spend less time a) browsing for resources b) preparing materials c) supporting students with different learning needs and styles, as collaboratively enhancing quality of the resources and facilitating access to high quality content that has been approved or validated by other educators and which can easily adapted to used across cultures and disciplines may allow academics to spend more time preparing their classes and communicating more effectively with their students.
[i] Wikipedia (2015). Reliability of Wikipedia.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reliability_of_Wikipedia
[ii] The ICDE’s open educational practices definition can be found at:http://www.icde.org/en/resources/open_educational_practices/
[iii] Havemann, L., Stroud, J., & Atenas, J. (2014). Breaking down barriers: Open Educational Practices as an emerging academic literacy. Academic Practice and Technology Conference, University of Greenwich, 5 July.
[v] Atenas, J., Havemann, L., & Priego, E. (2014). Opening teaching landscapes: The importance of quality assurance in the delivery of open educational resources. Open Praxis, 6(1), 29–43. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.6.1.81
[vi] JISC HEFCE OER Review http://oersynthesis.jiscinvolve.org/wp/category/open-educational-practice/
[vii] Atenas, J., & Havemann, L. (2014). Questions of quality in repositories of open educational resources: a literature review. Research in Learning Technology, 22. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/rlt.v22.20889
[viii] Atenas, J., & Havemann, L. (2013). Quality assurance in the open: an evaluation of OER repositories. INNOQUAL-International Journal for Innovation and Quality in Learning, 1(2), 22–34. Retrieved fromhttp://papers.efquel.org/index.php/innoqual/article/view/30/12
[ix] Atenas, J., & Havemann, L. (2013). A vision of Quality in Repositories of Open Educational Resources. In Y. Punie, Christine Redecker, & J. Castaño (Eds.), OPEN EDUCATION 2030. JRC-IPTS CALL FOR VISION PAPERS. PART III: HIGHER EDUCATION (pp. 54–59). European Commission Joint Research Centre Institute for Prospective Technological Studies. Retrieved fromhttp://is.jrc.ec.europa.eu/pages/EAP/documents/All_OE2030_HE_v 4_author revised_OK.pdf
[x] Havemann, L., & Atenas, J. (2014). MOOCs must move beyond open enrolment and demonstrate a true commitment to reuse and long-term redistribution. LSE Impact of Social Sciences Blog. Retrieved fromhttp://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/2014/03/07/is-it-time-for-moocs-to-open-up/
[xi] Atenas, J. (2015). Model for democratisation of the contents hosted in MOOCs.RUSC. Universities And Knowledge Society Journal, 12(1), 3-14. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.7238/rusc.v12i1.2031
[xiii] Atenas, J., Havemann, L., & Priego, E. (2015). The 21st Century’s raw material: using open data as open educational resources. Open Education Working Group Blog. Retrieved from http://education.okfn.org/the-21st-centurys-raw-material-using-open-data-as-open-educational-resources/
[xiv] Atenas, J., & Havemann, L. (2013). A vision of quality in repositories of open educational resources. Open Education 2030. Contribution to the JRC-IPTS Call for Vision Papers. Part III: Higher Education, 54–59.
APRIL 8 WEBINAR: OER AUTHORING AND DELIVERY PLATFORMS
The growing adoption of open educational resources (OER) has identified the need for easy-to-use authoring platforms for the development and delivery of openly licensed digital content. Please join the Community College Consortium for Open Educational Resources (CCCOER) for this free, open webinar on authoring platforms that support faculty authoring and adaption of open educational resources and institutional delivery of these resources.
Our speakers will share platforms used by faculty to develop open textbooks and also a delivery platform for making openly licensed digital content easily accessible for faculty and students.
Participant Login Information:
No pre-registration is necessary. Please use the link below on the day of the webinar to login and listen.
Dial-in if needed: 1-913-312-3202 (passcode: 103110)
CALL FOR PAPERS OPEN FOR RUSC’S SPECIAL SECTION ON
The Internet and Online Pedagogy
Articles should be submitted by 30 November 2015
Articles will be published in Issue 13, Vol. 3 (July 2016)
The Internet attracts our attention because we find it an effective way of doing many different things. This effectiveness is constantly put to the test in many aspects of life, such as politics, administration, health, consumerism, business, work, music, gaming and the construction of language. In the same way as in these social areas, talking about education today without mentioning the Internet is practically impossible; in fact, the absence of the Internet is much more obvious. However, the Internet is not simply a set of effective tools. The Internet implies unique ways of thinking, doing and feeling, which we draw on to contemplate and represent classic processes in a mediated, global and networked way. The Internet does not invent education, and it may not be more effective for learning, but it does help us think about educational matters from a different angle.
There is a long, diverse and rich pedagogical tradition in education but, as far as the Internet is concerned, the discipline is currently under construction. In this process, however, the pedagogical task cannot be whittled down to identifying only the most suitable Web application or Internet tool because this would reduce pedagogical reflection to the search for answers to the question of what we should learn with. The Internet is an educational environment and not just a source of didactic material, and it raises many questions. The meaning of pedagogical reflection as regards the Internet is behind the issue of which educational function can be added to the technological system created by it, and not simply the other way round.
Therefore, while the Internet offers thousands of applications to learn something, pedagogy seeks something more constant in this technological development: to understand and construct a series of principles and models in order to make the most of the social and cultural conditions that online teaching and learning imply. Discussing online pedagogical matters is not only about knowing which Internet tool we are going to use, but also why we are going to use it and how it – along with other variables – changes our way of understanding the educational space, sequencing issues, educational agents, the relationship with the curriculum, methodology and knowledge production, among other aspects. For all of these reasons, the ultimate goal of pedagogical knowledge is not to impose a technological tool on education, but instead to offer a framework of educational representation on the Internet. Educational matters on the Internet represent a pedagogical challenge.
That is why, together with a broad and sophisticated group of technological solutions on the Internet, pedagogical endeavours to systematise visions and validate experiences are being identified; these are renewing the way of conceiving educational matters in online learning environments. It is not simply a matter of didactic concern or ways of teaching online, but of an integral vision or a worldview of how our way of understanding education and, by extension,
social and cultural dynamics on the Internet is changing. In other words, the pedagogical task is to give educational meaning to the Internet.
Pedagogy and pedagogical thinking, with invaluable support from the various disciplines already concerned with the Internet, reside in the ability to articulate and offer new ways of educational representation. Besides interdisciplinary matters, this construction is not a mechanical path that consists in shifting old pedagogy onto the Internet; nor is it something that can be done at the same speed as the construction of technology. The pedagogical task is to identify a series of educational problems that can open up debate, clarify issues and refine didactic methodologies through educational research. This is the principal interest of this call for papers.
Why simply talk of the Internet in education when it is possible to talk of online pedagogy?
We are seeking contributions that enable reflection and provide research results on the Special Section topic from all disciplines concerned with educational matters around the world.
Specifically, the thematic areas of the Special Section are:
Essays on or situational reviews of topics such as:
Begoña Gros holds a doctorate in Pedagogy from the University of Barcelona (UB), Spain, and is a lecturer at that university. From 2007 to 2011, she was vice-rector for Research and Innovation at the Open University of Catalonia (UOC), Spain. She is currently a principal researcher within the “Learning Environments and Materials” group. Her areas of research are digital technologies and learning, and especially topics related to innovation, learning environment design and e-learning. She has participated in and coordinated research at national and international levels. She is a member of the Scientific Boards of several national and international journals (International Journal of Web-based Communities, Educational Research and Development, Comunicación y Educación, RUSC. Universities and Knowledge Society Journal, etc.).
Terry Anderson holds a doctorate in Educational Psychology, specialising in Digital Educational Applications, from the University of Calgary, Canada, and is a lecturer at Athabasca University – Canada’s Open University. He is the editor emeritus of The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning (IRRODL) and director of the Canadian Initiative for Distance Education (CIDER). His area of research is the use of social technology in distance-education learning. He has given various lectures around the world on the educational impact of the Internet, he manages and participates in several scientific research projects, and he is a Board member of several top-ranking scientific journals.
Cristóbal Suárez holds a doctorate in Education in Virtual Training Processes from the University of Salamanca (USAL), Spain, and is a lecturer in the Department of Didactics and School Organisation at the University of Valencia (UV), Spain. He has been the coordinator of SCOPEO, the Virtual Training Observatory, at USAL, and the coordinator of virtual pedagogical management at several universities. He currently participates in research projects on education, the Internet and learning at national and international levels, he is the associate editor of the journal Revista Iberoamericana de Educación a Distancia (RIED), and his articles have been published in research journals on the topics of educational development and the Internet, and especially on pedagogical innovation, cooperative online learning, digital educational culture and e-learning designs.
We strongly recommend checking the journal’s author guidelines before submitting an article. Please, remember to specify that it is for the SPECIAL SECTION PEDAGOGY.
Prepared by Gajaraj Dhanarajan, Wawasan Open University, Penang, Malaysia for ROER4D.
An overview about OER in Malaysia, also included some background of the higher educations in Malaysia, ICT in higher education, legal environment for OER, universities and institutions involved in OER movements, research and publications on OER.
Click here to download the report.
The OER Research Hub, based at the UK’s Open University, is researching the global impact of open educational resources (OER) on learners and teachers and is focusing on India as a case study. They are using surveys to gather evidence about the use and impact of OER in India and would really value your participation in this research by completing one of the surveys below.
on JANUARY 15, 2015
Humans are fundamentally social. There are a number of ways we might attempt to prove this claim. We might argue that the highest compliment someone can be paid is to be called a “true friend.” We might argue that the noblest of all emotions is love. We might argue that the single most important technological achievements in history are the creations of communications technologies such as speech, writing, printing, and the internet. Conversely, we might argue that society’s most severe nonlethal punishment is “solitary confinement.”
The power of each of these examples derives from relationships between people. You are a friend to someone else. You love someone else. You communicate with someone else. You are punished by being prevented from interacting with anyone else.
PBS summarizes simply, “All of us need other people in order to be well and thrive. We feel better just being around other people. And we need close relationships in order to be happy.”
Our learning is also social. Michael Feldstein recently described findings of a Gallup poll on education and wellbeing:
So feeling like your professors actually care matters? Apparently it matters a lot. Who knew?
A number of learning theorists and pedagogues have written about the social nature of learning. Perhaps most famous among these is Vygotsky and his notion of the more capable peer who supports a learner as she grows within her continually expanding zone of proximal development. Without devolving into a full-on literature review, together with Vygotsky we should mention Leontev, Luria, and particularly Werstch. John Dewey and John Seely Brown are of particular note, along with Lave and Wenger. By even starting to make the list I leave out more people than I can possibly include. Suffice it to say, much has been written on the social nature of learning.
My eventual critiques of learning objects were inspired largely by these and other thinkers talking about the social nature of learning. For example, my 2003 critique of attempts at automating education via learning objects still applies to today’s attempts to automate education via MOOCs and other means.
Beyond the seemingly endless proliferation of words by learning theorists and pedagogues lies empirical evidence. In his groundbreaking book Visible Learning, John Hattie provides a meta-analysis of over 800 meta-analyses, comparing the impacts on learning of 138 teacher, curriculum, school, and other influences as reported across thousands of empirical studies that met a quality threshold.
In what has to be my favorite Appendix ever Hattie lists these influences, rank ordered by the size of their impact on learning (with impact expressed in standardized effect sizes). He finds that one of the largest effects on learning, 11th of 138 overall, and the 3rd highest influence of teachers on learning, is the teacher-student relationship. He comments,
We could say more, but the point of a meta-meta-analysis is that Hattie’s 0.72 effect size summarizes the empirical evidence for us. Human relationships matter in education. When teachers know and care about their students, it makes a big difference.
With the pile of philosophical, conceptual, and empirical evidence showing the social nature of learning and the importance of human relationships (particularly the relationship between teacher and student) in learning and wellbeing, why are we working so hard to automate away any opportunity for these relationships to exist?
Teachers and faculty certainly aren’t demanding a future where teaching becomes a kind of solitary confinement attenuated only by a wispy virtual tether to their students. Students who learn less and are less happy when these relationships aren’t there, aren’t asking for it. Not even employers want this future, as they demonstrate by talking continuously about how important interpersonal and other social skills are in those they want to hire.
The only people who benefit from eliminating human relationships from learning are those who both (1) would benefit from “scaling” formal educational opportunities and (2) see teachers as a bottleneck in the scaling process. It’s a terrible shame, because there absolutely must be ways to “scale” education that preserve the opportunity for genuine human relationships of care to develop between teachers and students. If ed tech advocates, software developers, researchers, and others were putting as much time and effort into finding processes and building tools that support the creation and nurturing of these relationships as they’ve spent trying to eliminate those relationships, I think we could solve the problem.
But wait, I can hear you’re saying, isn’t this blog supposed to be about open? What does all this touchy feely relationship stuff have to do with open? Glad you asked. I was just getting to that.
As I’ve said many times, education is sharing. If you haven’t heard the refrain recently, you can listen to it again here:
While education is sharing, it’s good to be clear about what education is not. Education is not authoring. Education is not publishing. That is to say, education is more than recording a video and posting it to YouTube, even though such a video might be useful in supporting someone’s learning. (Learning is what a person does for themselves. Education is what someone else does to help you learn.)
If faculty aren’t sharing what they know with students, they aren’t educating. If they’re not sharing feedback with students – both critical and encouraging – they aren’t educating. And if they aren’t sharing something of themselves with students, they aren’t educating. And it’s this last bit, the notion of faculty sharing something of themselves with students, that gets us into the realm of the kind of relationships that make an immediate impact on student learning and make a long-term impact on students’ lives.
And herein lies, what is for me, a newly emerging connection to open. As I said above, the core ethic of open is sharing. But it’s becoming clearer and clearer to me that all the work we do in “open” education is work directed toward figuring out how to share more completely and more effectively – figuring out how to be more generous, as I say in the video above. The open licenses that underpin so much of what we do in open education are nothing more than utilitarian legal machinery that makes it easy for us to share in a world of copyright run amok. While some people almost fetishize them, open licenses are nothing more than an instrumental means to the actual end of making sharing easier.
I’m still developing my own thinking around this, but I want to think out loud for a few paragraphs. The tiny constellation of potentially copyrightable works is not the whole universe of open – not by a long shot. The ethic of open applies to other areas of life as well. We can share encouragement, share acceptance, share care and concern and empathy. Just because we don’t need to rely on licenses in order to share joys and sorrows doesn’t mean that this kind of sharing is outside the bounds of being open. In fact, perhaps the degree to which we invite anyone and everyone into the circle of our care and concern is the degree to which we are true to the deeper ethic of open.
Sharing a digital resource – something which you can do automatically, at no cost to you, without paying any attention to it happening, and without suffering any loss of access to the resource you shared – is the simplest and easiest form of open. There may be an opportunity cost, but there’s very little or no real cost. Openly licensing and sharing digital content is a form of being open that we definitely need to encourage and support, but surely placing an open license on a piece of digital content, like a photograph, is not the pinnacle of being open. It’s the point of departure, not the destination.
Perhaps the deeper ethic of open has to do with more comprehensive sharing – a sharing that includes, in addition to digital resources, resources which are infinitely more dear and precious. Things like our attention, time, care, talents, and devotion. If that is true, then when understood in the context of open education, the deeper ethic of open also points directly toward human relationships.
…and that is the connection I want to make.
Both education and openness, in their deepest and truest senses, seem to converge on relationships of generosity and care between human beings. I think that’s important. It has implications for the future of open education, which to be true to both “open” and “education” needs significantly more intellectual and financial investment in understanding how to enable and support the development of these relationships of generosity and care.
Now that’s worth getting out of bed in the morning for.
Copyright: This material was created by David Wiley and published freely under a Creative Commons Attribution license at http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/3732
Ebner, Martin & Schön, Sandra: Open Education Systems – the challenge of updating when republishing is allowed
Open Access and Open Educational Resources are important issues for the future of education even or especially in Higher Education. This contribution introduces a project on a textbook done collaboratively by more than 200 participants.
From a technical background the Open Journal Systems is used to assist and manage the whole scientific publishing process. Furthermore a plugin for the system has been developed to open the access to the content to any other third party application like mobile applications. In spite of a fully Open Education System numerous chapters appeared on different platforms because of the nature of openness and the possibility of republishing.
This research study aims to address the problem of unnecessary multiplication of learning objects. The report concluded that much more awareness is needed towards sustainability and reliability.
Click here for full report.
#oer #OJS #openjournalsystems
OPENPediatrics (OP), a free online education and best practice-sharing community for pediatric clinicians worldwide, has launched a new library of openly licensed medical animations and illustrations, making them available for non-commercial educational use.
Click at the image below to visit the multimedia library.
Slides show about how museums and related cultural heritage institutions are using Creative Commons to:
(a) Share their digital collections
First published in The Souvenir, FICCI Higher Education Summit 2014
Viplav Baxi makes the case that MOOCs have arrived in India. Now is the time to reflect on what pitfalls we should avoid and how we can fully leverage them in the Indian context.
The past few years have seen the rapid growth of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). This emergence has been particularly interesting to follow in India, where we seem to have discovered online learning on a massive scale. Indians account for about 10% of the registrations in MOOCs from the top MOOC providers.
MOOCs actually originated out of a new theory of learning called Connectivism proposed by George Siemens in 2005. The first MOOC (the term itself was coined by Dave Cormier) was organized in 2008 by George Siemens and Stephen Downes. Hailed as a disruptive model of education, the earliest MOOCs (also called cMOOCs or Connectivist MOOCs) offered a whole new way of teaching and learning.
Much later, in 2011-12, top universities in the USA jumped on to the MOOC bandwagon, lending it worldwide credibility and fame. The reasons behind the quick adoption of these MOOCs was the fact that anyone could learn (or get certified), for free or a small fee, from some of the top universities and top professors in the world. Large investments by private capital and university foundations shaped popular perception about the revolutionary potential of these MOOCs. Also universities viewed them as extending the reach and brand of the University. Open Courseware had existed for a very long time, but the shape and form of these MOOCs was far more accessible and exciting.
MOOCs have now progressed from being higher education-only to school, teacher and vocational education. The top 3 MOOC providers now service about 20 million students worldwide, about 5 times the open and distance learning enrolments in India. MOOCs have also taken over imagination at policy levels, with the Indian Government proposing SWAYAM as the open MOOC platform for India.
However, there remain significant challenges with the MOOC model.
Firstly, the pedagogy behind these MOOCs needs a rethink. The type of MOOCs that have gained worldwide popularity since 2011, adopted the title “MOOC” but ignored the rich underlying Connectivist origins. They merely extended traditional online, instructivist Web Based Training (WBT) and Instructor Led Training (ILT) methods to a massive audience, earning them the term xMOOCs, the “x” standing for “eXtension”.
WBTs and ILTs were designed as eLearning equivalents to reduce training delivery costs and standardize instruction for large scale corporate training. But nearly everyone realizes that this type of eLearning is not scalable because it is designed for learner stereotypes, does not account for real world diversity and in general, predates and ignores the entire social learning revolution.
Both for WBTs/ILTs and xMOOCs, the model is largely teacher (and/or instructional designer) led and content-driven. It not based upon socially negotiated & distributed learning, the hallmark of the Connectivist MOOCs. This is why it is perhaps more appropriate to call them XBTs (or “massive” extensions of WBTs and ILTs) rather than think of them as a variant of the original MOOC approach.
The XBTs augment the traditional systems, giving importance to institutional pedigree, clearly defined institutional structures & processes (such as courses, terms and exams) and certification mechanisms.
The Connectivist MOOCs are very open, emphasize sense-making, operate in a distributed fashion, legitimize learners at the periphery (legitimate peripheral participation or “lurking”) and do not impose the strict conformance to traditional notions of course, exam and certification. For them, learning is the process of making connections and knowledge is the network, which means that the competency and capability to learn critically determines the learning itself. This is the central theme behind heutagogy – the study of self-determined learning – that, unlike pedagogy and andragogy, marks a significant move away from traditional teacher-centred learning.
It will be critical for MOOC providers to evaluate the Connectivist approach as we move ahead, if we are to build meaningful massive open online learning courses and platforms.
Secondly, engagement and retention are key aspects of the learning experience that the MOOCs, in general, have not been able to address effectively. The long tail of learning, which is that a really large number of learners end up not completing the MOOC or remain at low levels of engagement, is nothing new. It is just that the massive nature of MOOCs amplifies some of these known issues.
It is here that the MOOC providers need to spend a lot of time experimenting with techniques such as gamification, badges, adaptive learning and learning analytics. The Connectivist model relies on learners to build capability for their own learning, something that is the desired endgame for any educational system. By increasing learner capability to learn in the digital medium, cMOOCs can potentially flatten the long tail. The traditional XBT model can only reinforce and amplify it.
The third challenge is in establishing sustenance & growth models, whether MOOC providers are for-profit or not for-profit. So far, providers have looked at monetization/cost recovery through various methods such as charging institutions or teachers for MOOC development; charging potential employers; platform provision; training & support; charging students for blended (online plus offline) learning, mentoring/coaching, special finishing school programs and certification.
For example, Coursera now has about 10 mn students and is supposedly making USD 1 mn a month from its verified certificate courses that cost between USD 30 and USD 100. However, even though these models do not appear to have garnered explosive acceptance from a retail student perspective since they are not really integrated into formally recognized certifications, the hope seems to be to acquire large enough numbers to translate into sustainable and/or profitable ventures.
An interesting comparison for XBT providers are the formal open and distance learning systems, where regulated degrees & certificate programs drive enrolments and fees & endowments drive the income. The UK Open University in 2012-13, earned more than GBP 200 mn as fee income (about 60% of which were supported by student tuition loans) from over 200,000 students. The Indira Gandhi National Open University in India, has an annual enrolment of about 500,000 students (in 2012 annual enrolment was 465,000 students), but the fee per course would be a fraction of the fee charged by the UKOU. Of course, the XBT providers are looking at multiples of these figures as they go about targeting a global audience.
The fourth challenge lies with a weak private/non-profit investment climate for MOOCs in India. Significant public effort and money has and is being spent across various pioneering Government initiatives to build open education resources (OERs), MOOCs and MOOC platforms. These can be leveraged by anyone under a very permissive OER policy, which even allows commercial use. However, barely any private investment is flowing into leveraging these resources.
Innovations and investments are required in multiple areas such as awareness generation, access to technology and communications, capability development, content development (including multilingual), pedagogy, development/enhancement of MOOC platforms, collecting and managing learner progress and performance data to improve the learning experience, as well as areas like gamification, Virtual LABs and other forms of technology augmented learning. These innovations and investments should directly impact our education system in terms of improved access, improved learning outcomes and higher employability.
To summarize, MOOCs have arrived, but if we do not deal with these core challenges of MOOCs, we will end up having a dysfunctional system. To avoid later disappointment, stakeholders must reorganize and focus on how to avoid the pitfalls of the current wave of MOOCs.
by Cikgu Brian
Below capture some presentation slides and keynote videos during Open Education 2014.
Research on Open Educational Resources for Development (ROER4D) in the Global South: Learning to research OER openly from ROER4D
Evolving Towards Open in a Relatively Closed Institution
This article was presented by Gráinne Conole, Giles Pepler, Paul Bacsich, Brenda Padilla and Terese Bird. It provides a review of the policy perspectives on Open Educational Resources (OER) and Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) and draws in particular on the findings from two EU-funded projects: OPAL and POERUP.
The aim was to enable OER and MOOC stakeholders to make informed strategic decisions to promote the use of OER and MOOCs.
It also draws on the findings of the OpenCred project, which focused on recognition of informal and non-formal learning.
Finally it contextualises these projects in terms of a number of related projects and initiatives concerned with OER and MOOCs.
The chapter concludes by discussing the policy implications of OER and MOOCs.
OER Research Hub recently had published the OER Evidence Report 2013-2014, this report provides a focus for research, designed to give answers to the overall question ‘What is the impact of OER on learning and teaching practices?’ and identify the particular influence of openness.
This report is the collaboration of OERRH with projects across four education sectors (K12, college, higher education and informal) extending a network of research with shared methods and shared results.
The project combines:
This report is an interim review of evidence recorded against the key hypotheses that focus the research of the OER Research Hub project.
Please click here to read the report.
Here is the Robert Farrow's slides which he presented during Open Education 2014 on Ethics, openness and the future of education. If you are interested in this subject, you can check out OERRH Ethics Manual and the section on ethics (week 2) of OER Research Hub's Open Research course.
Policy favorable to OER is a critical component of the entire open education movement. OER policies currently exist at many levels: international, national, regional, local, and institutional. You can explore various OER policies around the world on the OER Policy Map maintained by the OER Research Hub. Creative Commons also maintains a list of proposed and adopted OER policies that is well-worth your perusal. As I have traveled hither and yon these past few months meeting with Hewlett grantees and others involved and interested in OER, the policy issue has continually surfaced as an important theme. These conversations have caused me to think more deeply about the role of policy in accomplishing Hewlett’s goal of mainstreaming OER.
Dr. Vance Randall, an expert in both education policy and educating about education policy (and former advisor to Senator Orrin Hatch) argues that policy is nearly always created to a solve a particular problem or set of problems. From this perspective, the best way to understand an existing policy is to identify the problem(s) it was created to solve (not always an easy task). In advocating for OER-related policies, we should be very clear about the problem the particular policy would solve. What’s more, we should recognize that OER policy can solve different problems at different policy levels. Using the “policy/problem/solution” concept as a framework, here is my current thinking (limited as it may be) about OER policy at the international, national, and institutional levels*. For each level, I provide the problems that I think are most easily solved by OER policy, problems I think are less likely to be solved, and my current vision for a “dream” policy. I am very open to feedback about my views on OER policy and hope that others will contribute to the conversation here.
International OER Policy
Policy at the international level related to OER is most likely to be useful in solving the OER awareness problem and the sustainable OER development problem. Awareness of OER is very low throughout the world. International OER policy established by IGOs like the European Commission, UNESCO, OECD, and the World Bank can do much to help solve the awareness problem by being committed to discussing the role of OER in solving broader educational issues at member state gatherings. IGOs that provide funding to member states could also require open licensing of materials produced with those funds. Non-funding IGOs could encourage their member states to adopt national-level policies that require open licensing of all materials produced with public funding. It seems less likely to me that international OER policy can as effectively or directly solve other problems related to OER, including adoption, discoverability/interoperability, and effective Open Educational Practice (OEP) at the classroom level.
A “dream” international OER policy would require member states of each of the respective IGOs to openly license all materials produced with public funds, as a condition of membership.
National OER Policy
Depending on the nation, national OER policies may help solve the sustainable OER development problem by requiring open licensing on materials produced with public funds. National policies could also solve the OER efficacy problem by providing funding for research related to OER and OEP. In democratic, decentralized states like the US, national OER policies are less likely to be effective at tackling the adoption and discoverability/interoperability problems.
A “dream” national OER policy would require all education materials produced with public funding (including all materials produced on-the-clock by faculty and teachers at publically funded institutions and schools) to be openly licensed and shared in a national repository that requires appropriate metadata tagging to increase discoverability.
Institutional OER Policy
Institutional OER policies could help solve nearly every problem related to OER mainstreaming. Institutional OER polices could help solve the OER awareness problem by requiring faculty and teachers to receive professional development related to OER. Institutional policies could also solve the OER development problem by requiring investment in faculty and teacher time to review, adopt, and adapt existing OER (and create new open materials when there are gaps). Institutional policies could solve the adoption problem in higher education by requiring faculty to use OER by default and only use propriety materials when adequate justification exists. In K-12, institutional polices at the school district level could require curricular review boards to give priority to open content and justify use of proprietary content (I suppose regional policies at the state level could do this as well, but it is much less politically viable in the US). Institutional policies could help solve the discoverability/interoperability problems by requiring that all newly created open content carry appropriate metadata, be shared via the national repository (if my national “dream” policy were in place), and require investment in professional development related to effective strategies for finding OER (i.e. “How to Use Google Advanced Search”). Finally, institutional OER policies could solve the OER efficacy problem by encouraging and supporting in-house research on OEP.
A “dream” institutional OER policy in higher education would require faculty to adopt openly licensed content by default, and only allow adoption of proprietary materials if justifiable. A “dream” institutional OER policy in K-12 would require curricular review boards to give priority to open content and only allow adoption of proprietary content in extreme cases (if at all).
A final word about implementation: A policy means nothing if it is not implemented with fidelity. The best “dream” policy in the world is a pile of garbage if the solution it provides is not actually implemented. We need to be spending more time on encouraging implementation of existing OER policies while we are advocating for new ones. As a rule, I believe international policies are much more difficult to implement with fidelity than national policies. I also believe that national policies are much more difficult to implement than institutional policies.
My views on policy implementation, taken together with my argument about institutional OER policies, should leave no one surprised at my current thinking on the OER Policy space: In addition to advocating for policies at the international, national, and regional levels, we should be more intensely investing our energy and advocacy in pushing for solid OER policies at the institutional level – at colleges, universities, and school districts.
I give an important reminder here that the posts on my blog do not necessarily reflect the views of the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. This post simply represents my current, jet-lagged thinking on OER policy. I welcome and encourage feedback from the field on this issue. I absolutely reserve the right to keep an open mind and change my views. Typing this also reminds me of one of my favorite lyrics by one of the greatest bands in the world:
A man came up to me and said:
Let the kindly rock throwing begin.
*I have chosen not to address regional/local policies in this post, not because I feel they are unimportant, but because I see them as an extension of national policies or a reflection of institutional policies, especially in the United States. If someone has an argument for the uniqueness of local/regional OER policies in terms of solving key OER problems, I would love to hear it. I suspect there are some good cases to be made.
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